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original anglais moderne

THonkyd be god

[Fol. 4]

our glorious

ffadir and fo|un|

der and former of heuen

and of erthe and of all

thygis that in hym is

that he wolde foche|s|aue of

his glorius god hed for to

make |s|o mony thyngis of d

uers vertu for mankynd.


ffor he mader all thyngis for

to be abedient & |s|oget to man

ffor all thyngis that ben come|s|

tible of hol|s|ome nature he

ordeyned hit for manys |s|usty

[Fol.4 b.]

na|n|s. And all to be hath yif

to man wittys and cony|n|g

of dy|ver|s thyngys and craft

tys by the whiche we may

trauayle in this worlde to [20]

gete |wit| our lyuyg to make

diuers thingys to goddis ple

|s|ans and also for our e|s|e and

profyt. The whiche thingis

if I |s|cholde reher|s|e hem hit

wre to longe to telle and to

wryte. Wherfor I woll leue.

but I |s|chall |s|chew you |s|ome

that is to |s|ey ho and in what

[Fol. 5]

wyse the |s|ciens of Gemetry


fir|s|te be ganne and who |wer|

the founders therof and of

othur craftis mo as hit is no

tid in |the| bybill and in othur


HOw and in what ma

ner |th|at this worthy

|s|ciens of Gemetry be gan I

wole tell you as I sayde bi

fore. ye |s|chall undirstonde


|that| |ther| ben vi|i| |liberall |s|ciens

by the whiche vi|i| all |s|ciens

and craftis in the world were

[Fol. 5 b.]

fyr|s|te founde. and in especiall

for he is causer of all. |that| is to

sey |the| |s|ciens of Gemetry of all

other that be. the whiche v|i|i sci

ens ben called thus. as for the

fir|s|t |that| is called fundament

of sciens his name is gra|mmer|


he techith a man ry|g|thfully to

|s|peke and to write truly. The

|s|econde is rethorik. and he te

chith a man to |s|peke formabe

ly and fayre. The thrid is

dioletic|us|. and |that| |s|ciens techith

a man to discerne the trowthe

[Fol. 6]

fro |the| fals and comenly it is

tellid art or |s|oph'stry. The fourth

ys callid ar|s|metryk |the| whiche


techeth a man the crafte of

nowmbers for to rekyn and

to make a coun|t| of all th|y|ge

The ffte Gemetry the which

techith a man all the met|t|

and me|s|u|r|s and ponderat|o|n

of wy|g|htis of all mans craf|t|

The. vi. is musi|k| that techith

a man the crafte of |s|ong in

notys of voys and organ &


trompe and harp and of all

[Fol. 6 b.]

othur |p|teynyng to hem. The

vi|i| is a|s|tronomy that techith

man |the| cours of the |s|onne

and of |the| moune and of ot|her|

|s|terrys & planetys of heuen.

OWr entent is princi

pally to trete of fyrst

fundacion of |the| worthe |s|cy|en|s

of Gemetry and we were


|the| founders |ther| of as I seyde

by fore there ben vi|i| liberall

|s|cyens |that| is to |s|ay vi|i| |s|ciens or

craftys that ben fre in hem

selfe the whiche vi|i|. lyuen

[Fol. 7.]

only by Gemetry. And Ge

metry is as moche to |s|ey

as the me|s|ure of the erth

Et sic dici|t| a geo |ge| q|ui|n |R| ter

a latine & metro|n| quod |e|


men|s|ura. U|na| Gemetria. i,

mens|u|r terre uel terra|rum|.

that is to |s|ay in englische that

Gemetria is I |s|eyd of geo |that| is

in gru. erthe, and metro|n| |that| is

to |s|ey me|s|ure. And thus is |this|

nam of Gemetria c|om|pounyd

as is|s|eyd the me|s|ur of |the| erthe.

MErvile ye not that I

|s|eyd that all |s|ciens lyu|e|


all only by the |s|ciens of Geme

try. ffor there is none artifici|-|

all ne honcrafte that is wro|g|th

by manys hond bot hit is

wrou|g|ght by Gemetry. and a

notabull cau|s|e. for if a man

worche |wit| his hondis he wor

chyth |wit| so|m|e ma|nner| tole and

|ther| is none in|s|trument of ma|-|

teriall thingis in this worlde


but hit come of |the| kynde of

erthe and to erthe hit wole

turne a yen. and ther is n|one|

[Fol. 8.]

in|s|trument |that| is to |s|ay a tole

to wirche |wit| but hit hath

some p|ro|op|r|orcion more or la|s||s|e

And some proporcion is me|s|ure

the tole er the in|s|trment

is erthe. And Gemetry is

|s|aid the me|s|ure of erth|e| Whe|re|

fore I may |s|ey |that| men lyuen

all by Gemetry. ffor all

men here in this worlde lyue

by |the| labour of her hondys.

MOny mo pbacions I

wole telle yow why |that|

Gemetry is the |s|ciens |that| all re

[Fol. 8 b.]

sonable m|e|n lyue by. but I

leue hit at |this| tyme for |the| l|o|ge

|pro|ce|s||s|e of wrytyng. And now


I woll|prp|cede forthe|r| on me ma

ter. ye |s|chall under|s|tonde |that|

amonge all |the| craftys of |the|

worlde of mannes crafte

ma|s|onry hath the mo|s|te no

tabilite and mo|s|te |par|te of |this|

|s|ciens Gemetry as hit is

notid and |s|eyd in |s|toriall

as in the bybyll and in the

ma|s||ter| of |s|tories. And in poli/cronico


a cronycle |pri|nyd and in the

[Fol. 9.]

|s|tories |that| is named Beda

De Imagine m|un|di & Isodo|rus|

ethomologia|rum|. Methodius

epus & marti|rus|. And ot|her|

meny mo |s|eyd |that| ma|s|on|r|y is

principall of Gemetry as

me thenkyth hit may well

be |s|ayd for hit was |the| first

that was foundon as hit is


notid in the bybull in |the| first

boke of Genesis in the iii|i|

chap|ter|. And al|s|o all the doc

tours afor|s|ayde acordeth |ther| to

And |s||u|me of hem |s|eythe hit

[Fol. 9. b.]

more openly and playnly

ry|g|t as his |s|eithe in the by

bull Gene|s|is

ADam is line linyalle

|s|one de|s|cendyng doun|e|


the vi|i| age of adam byfore

noes flode |ther| was a ma|n| |that|

was clepyd lameth the

whiche hadde i|i| wyffes |the|

on hyght ada & a nother

|s|ella by the fyr|s|t wyffe |th|at

hyght ada |he| be gate i|i| |s|onys

|that| one hyght Jobel and the o|ther|

height juball. The elder |s|one

[Fol 10.]

Jobell he was the fists ma|n| [170]

|that| e|ver| found gemetry and

ma|s|onry. and he made how

|s|is & namyd in |the| bybull

Pa|ter| habitantci|um| in tento|-|

ris atq|ue| pasto|rum| That is to

|s|ay fader of men dwellyng

in tentis |that| is dwellyng

how|s|is. A. he was Cayin is

ma|s||ter| ma|s|on and go|ver|nor

of all his werkys whan


he made |the| Cite of Enoch

that was the fir|s|te Cite

that was the fir|s|t Cite |th|at

[Fol. 10 b.]

e|ver| was made and |that| made

Kayme Adam is |s|one. |an|d

yaf to his owne |s|one. Enoch

and yaff the Cyte the n|am|e

of his |s|one and kallyd hit

Enoch. and now hit is

callyd Effraym and |ther| wa|s|


|s|ciens of Gemetry and ma

|s|onri fyr|s|t occupied and

c|on|trenyd for a |s|ciens and

for a crafte and |s|o we may

|s|ey |that| hit was cav|s|e & f|un|

dacion of all craftys and

|s|ciens. And al|s|o |this| ma|n|

[Fol. 11.]

Jobell was called Pa|ter|


THe mas|ter| of |s|tories


|s|eith and beda de yma

gyna m|un|di policronicon &

other mo |s|eyn that he wa|s|

|th|e first that made de|per|ce|s|on

of lond |that| e|ver|y man myght

knowe his owne grounde

and labou|re| the|re| on as for

his owne. And also he de

|par|tid flockes of |s|chepe |that|

e|ver|y man myght know hi|s|


owne |s|chepe and |s|o we may

[Fol. 11 b.]

|s|ey that he was the fir|s|t

founder of |that| |sciens. And his

brother Juball. or tuball

was founder of my|s|yke &

|s|ong as pictogoras |s|eyth

in policronycon and the

|s|ame |s|eythe ylodou|re| in his

ethemologi|i| in the v|i| boke

there he |s|eythe that he was


|the| fir|s|t foundere of my|s|yke

and |s|ong and of organ &

trompe and he founde |th|at

|s|ciens by the |s|oune of pon/deracion

of his brotheris hamers |that|

[Fol. 12.]

was tubalcaym.

SOthely as |the| bybull

|s|eyth in the chapitre

|that| is to |s|ey the iii|i| of Gene|s|'

|that| he |s|eyth lameth gate apon


his other wiffe |that| height |s|ella

a |s|one & a do|ou|c|ter| |the| names of

th|em| were clepid tubalcaym

|that| was |the| |s|one. & his doghter

hight neema & as the poli

cronycon |s|eyth |that| |s|ome men

|s|ey |that| |s|che was noes wyffe

we|ther| h|it| be |s|o o|ther| no we afferme/ hit nott

YE |s|chul|le| under|s|tonde

|that| |th|is |s|one tubalcaym


was founder of |s|mythis

craft and o|ther| craft of

meteil |that| is to |s|ey of eyron

of braffe of golde & of |s|il|ver|

as |s|ome docturs |s|eyn & his

|s|ys|ter| neema was fynder of

we|ver|scraft. for by fore |that| time

was no cloth weuyn but

they did spynne yerne and

knytte hit & made h|em| |s|uch|e|


clothyng as they couthe

but as |the| woman neema

founde |the| craft of weuyng

[Fol. 13.]

& |ther|fore hit was kalled wo

menys craft. and |th|es ii|i|

brotheryn afore|s|ayd had know

lyche |that| god wold take ven

gans for |s|ynne o|ther| by fyre

or watir and they had gre|ter|

care how they my|s|t do to


|s|aue |the| |s|ciens that |th|ey fo|un|de

and |th|ey toke her con|s|el|le|

to gedyr & by all her wit|ts

|th|ey |s|eyde |that| were. i|i| ma|ner| of

|s|tonn of |s|uche |ver|tu |that| |the| one

wolde ne|ver| brenne & |that| |s|to|ne|

is callyd marbyll. & |that| o|ther| sto|ne|

|that| woll not |s|ynke in wa|ter|. &

|that| stone is named la|tr|us. and

|s|o |th|ey deuy|s|yed to wryte all


|the| |s|ciens |that| |th|ey had ffounde in

this i|i| |s|tonys if |that| god wol|de|

take vengns by fyre |that| |the|

marbyll |s|cholde not bren|ne|

And yf god |s|ende vengans

by wa|ter||that| |th|e o|ther| |s|cholde not

droune. & so |th|ey prayed |ther|

elder brother jobell |that| wold

make i|i|. pillers of |th|es. i|i|

|s|tones |that| is to |s|ey of marb|yll|


and of la|tr|us and |that| he wold

[Fol. 14.]

write in the i|i|. pylers al|l|

|the| |s|ciens & craf|ts| |that| al|l| |th|ey

had founde. and |s|o he did

and |ther|for we may |s|ey |that|

he was mo|s|t co|nn|yng in

|s|ciens for he fyr|s|t bygan

& |per|formed the end by for

noes flode.

KYndly knowyng of


|that| venganns |that| god

wolde |s|end whether hit

|s|cholde be bi fyre or by wa|ter|

the bretherne hadde hit n|ot|

by a ma|ner| of a |pro|phecy they

[Fol. 14 b.]

wi|s|t |that| god wold |s|end one |ther|

of. and |ther| for thei writen

he|re| |s|ciens in |the|. i|i|. pilers

of |s|tone. And |s||u|me men |s|ey

|that| |th|ey writen in |the|. |s|tonis


all |th|e. vi|i| |s|ciens. but as

|th|ey in here mynde |that| a ven

ganns |s|cholde come. And

to hit was |that| god |s|entd ven

ganns |s|o |that| |ther| come |s|uche

a flode |th|at al|le| |the| worl was

drowned. and al|le| men w|er|

dede |ther| in |s|aue. vii|i|. |per|sonis

And |that| was noe and his

[Fol. 15.]

wyffe. and his ii|i|. sonys &


here wyffes. of whiche. ii|i|

sones a|ll| |the| world cam of.

and here namys were na

myd in this ma|ner|. Sem. Cam.

& Japhet. And |this| flode was

kalled noes flode ffor he &

his children were |s|auyed |ther|

in. And af|ter| this flode many

yeres as |the| cronycle telleth

thes. i|i| pillers were founde


& as |the| polycronicon |s|eyth |that|

a grete clerke |that| callede puto|-|/goras

|f|onde |that| one and hermes |the|

philisophre fonde |that| other. &

thei tought forthe |the| |s|ciens |that|

thei fonde |ther| y wryten.

Every cronycle and |s|to

riall and meny other

clerkys and the bybull in |pri|nci

pall wittenes of the makyn|ge|


of the toure of babilon and hit

is writen in |the| bibull Gene|sis

Cap|ter| |x| wo |that| Cam noes

|s|one gate nembrothe and he

war a myghty man apon |the|

erthe and he war a stron|ge|

man like a Gyant and he w|as|

[Fol. 16.]

a grete Kyng. and the bygyn

yn|ge| of his kyngdom was

trew kyngd|om| of babilon and


arach. and archad. & talan &

the lond if |s|ennare. And this

same CamNemroth be gan |the| towre

of babilon and he taught and

he taught to his werkemwn |the|

crafte of ma|s|uri and he had

|wit| h|ym| mony ma|s|onys mo |th||an|

|x|l |th|ou|s|and. and he louyd &

chere|s|ched them well. and hit

is wryten in policronicon and


in |the| mas|ter| of |s|tories and in

other |s|tories mo. and |this| a part

wytnes bybull in the |s|ame

|x|. chap|ter| he |s|eyth |that| a

|s|ure |that| was nye kynne to

CamNembrothe yede owt of |the| londe of

|s|enare and he bylled the Cie

Nunyve and plateas and o|ther|

mo |th|us he |s|eyth. De tra illa

& de |s|ennare egreffus est a|s|u|re|


& edificauit Nunyven & pla|-|

teas ciuiya|te| & cale & Jesu q|o|q|z|

in|ter| nunyven & hec |est| Ciuita|s|


RE|s|on wolde |that| we |s|chold

[Fol. 17.]

tell opunly how & in

what ma|ner| that |the| charges

of ma|s|oncraft was fyr|s|t fo|un|

dyd & ho yaf fir|s|t |the| name

to hit of ma|s|onri and ye


|s|chyll knaw well |that| hit told

and writen in policronicon &

in methodus ep|iscopu|s and mar|ter|

|that| a|s|ur |that| was a worthy lord

of |s|ennare |s|ende to nembroth

|the| kynge to |s|ende h|ym| ma|s|ons

and workemen of craft |that| myght

helpe hym to make his Cite

|that| he was in wyll to make.

[Fol. 17 b.]

And nembroth |s|ende h|ym| |xxx|


C. of masons. And whan |th|ey

|s|cholde go & |s|ende h|em| forth. he

callyd hem by for h|ym| and |s|eyd

to hem ye mo|s|t go to my co

|s|yn a|s|ure to helpe h|ym| to bilde

a cyte but loke |that| ye be well

go|uer|nyd and I |s|chall yeue

yov a charge |pro|fitable for

you & me.

WHen ye come to |that| lord


loke |that| ye be trewe to

hym lyke as ye wolde be to

me. and truly do your labour

[Fol. 18.]

and craft and takyt re|s|on|-|

abull your mede |ther|for as ye

may de|s|erue and al|s|o |that| ye

loue to gedyr as ye were

bre|th|eryn and holde to gedyr

truly. & he |that| hath most c|on||yn|g

teche hit to hys felaw and


louke ye go|uer|ne you ayen|s|t

yowr lord and a monge

yowr selfe. |that| I may haue

worchyppe and thonke for

me |s|endyng and techyng

you the crafte. and |th|ey re|s|/ceyuyd

the charge of h|ym| |that| was here

[Fol. 18 b.]

mai|s||ter| and here lorde. and

wente forthe to a|s|ure. &

bilde the cite of nunyve in


|the| count|r|e of plateas and o|ther|

Cites mo |that| men call cale

and Jesen |that| is a gret Cite

bi twene Cale and nunyve

And in this ma|ner| |the| craft

of ma|s|onry was fyr|s|t |pre|fer

ryd & chargyd hit for a |s|ci|en|s.

ELders |that| we|re| bi for us

of ma|s|ons had te|s|e

charges wryten to hem as


we haue now in owr char

[Fol. 19.]

gys of |the| |s|tory of Enclidnis

as we have |s|eyn hem writ|en|

in latyn & in Fre|s|nche bothe

but ho |that| Enclyd come to ge|-|

metry re|s|on wolde we

|s|cholde telle yow as hit is

notid in the hybull & in other

|s|tories. In |xii| Capitl|or| Gene|sis|

he tellith how |that| abrah|am| com to


the lond of Canan and owre

lord aperyd to h|ym| and |s|eyd I

|s|chall geue this lond to |th|i

|s|eed. but |ther| |s|yll a grete hun|ger|

in |that| lond. And abraham toke

[Fol. 19 b.]

|s|ara his wiff |wit| him and

yed in to Egypte in pylgre|-|

mage whyle |the| hunger du

red he wolde hyde |ther|. And A

brah|am| as |the| cronycull |s|eyth


he was a wy|s|e man and a

grete clerk. And covthe all

|the|vi|i| |s|ciens. and taughte

the egypeyans |the| |sciens of

Gemetry. And this worthy

clerk Enclidnis was his

clerke and lerned of hym.

And he yaue |the| fir|s|te name

of Gemetry all be |that| hit

[Fol. 20.]

was ocupied bifor hit had


no name of gemetry. But

hit is |s|eyd of ylodour Ethe

mologia|rum| in |the| v. boke. Ethe

mologia|rum| Cap|itolo| p'mo. |s|eyth

|that| Enclyde was on of |the| fir|s|t

founders of Gemetry &

he yaue hit name. ffor |in|

his tyme ther was a wa

ter in |that| lond of Egypt |that|

is callyd Nilo and hit flowid


|so| ferre in to |the| londe |that| men

myght not dwelle |ther|in

THen this worthi

clerke Enclide taught

hem to make grete wallys

and diches to holde owt |the|

watyr. and he by Gemet'

me|s|ured |the| londe and de|par|

tyd hit in dy|ver|s |par|tys. &

mad e|ver|y man to clo|s|e his


awne |par|te |wit| walles and

diches an |the|en hit be c|am|e

a plentuos c|on|untre of all

ma|ner| of freute and of yon|ge|

peple of men and women

that |ther| was |s|o myche pepull

of yonge frute |that| they couth'

not well lyue. And |the| lordys

of the countre drew hem to

gedyr and made a councell


how they myght helpe her

childeryn |that| had no lyflode

c|om|potente & abull for to fyn|de|

hem selfe and here childron

for |th|ey had |s|o many. and

a mong hem all in councell

was |this| worthy clerke Encli

dnis and when he |s|a|we| |th|at

all they cou|th|e not btynge

a bout this mater. he |s|eyd


to hem woll ye take y|our| |s|on|ys|

[Fol. 21 b.]

in go|uer|nanns & I |s|chall tec|he|

hen |s|uche a sciens |that| they

|s|chall iyue ther by |j|entel

manly vnder condicion |that|

ye wyll be |s|wore to me to

|per|fourme the go|uer|na|nn|s |that|

I |s|chall |s|ette you too and

hem bothe and the kyng

of |the| londe and all |the| lordys


by one a|ss|ent gra|un|tyd |ther| too.

REson wolde |that| e|uer|y m|an|

woulde graunte to |that|

thyng |that| were |pro|fetable to h|im|

|s|elf. and they toke here |s|o

[Fol 22.]

nys to enclide to go|uer|ne

hem at his owne wylle &

he taught to hem the craft

masonry and yaf hit |th|e

name of Gemetry by cav|s|e


of |the| |par|tyng of |the| grounde |that|

he had taught to |the| peple

in the time of |the| makyng

of |the| wallys and diches a

for |s|ayd to claw|s|e out |the|

watyr. & I|s|odor |s|eyth in his

Ethemolegies |that| Enclide

callith the craft Gemetrya

And |ther| this worthye clerke

[Fol. 22 b.]

yaf hit name and taught


hitt the lordis |s|onys of |the|

londe |that| he had in his tech|in|g

And he yaf h|em| a charge |that|

they scholde calle here eche

other ffelowe & no nother

wise by cav|s|e |that| they were

all of one crafte & of one

gentyll berthe bore & lor|ds'|

|s|onys. And also he |that| we|re|

most of c|on|nyng scholde be


go|uer|nour of |the| werke and

scholde be callyd mais|ter| &

other charges mo |that| ben

[Fol. 23.]

wryten in |the| boke of char

gys. And |s|o they wrought

|with| lordys of |the| lond & made

cities and tounys ca|s|telis

& templis and lordis placis.

WHat tyme |that |the| chil

dren of i|s|rl dwellid


|in| egypte they lernyd |the|

craft of masonry. And

afturward |th|ey were

dryuen ont of Egypte |th|ey

come in to |th|e lond of bihest

and is now callyd ierl|e|m

and hit was ocupied & char

[Fol. 23 b.]

gys y holde. And |the| mak|yn|g

of |s|alomonis tempull |that|

Kyng Dauid be gan. k|yn|g


dauid louyd well ma|s|ons

and he yaf hem ry|g|t nye

as |th|ey be nowe. And at |the|

makyng of |the| temple in

|s|alomonis tyme as hit

is seyd in |the| bibull in |the|

ii|i| boke of Regu in |ter|cio

Reg|um| Cap|itolo| quinto. That

Salomon had iii|i|. score

thow|s|and masons at


his werke. And |the| kyngi|s|

[Fol 24.]

|s|one of Tyry was |his| ma|s||ter|

ma|s|en. And other crony

clos hit is |s|eyd & in olde

bokys of ma|s|onry that

Salomon c|on|firmed |the| char

gys |that| dauid has fadir had

yeue to ma|s|ons. And |s|alo

mon hym |s|elf taught h|em|

here maners byt lityll


differans fro the maners

that now ben u|s|yd. And fro

thens |this| worthy |s|ciens

was brought |in to fraunce

And in to many o|ther| regi|on|s

[Fol. 24 b.]

SUmtyme ther w|as|

a worthye kyng in

ffrauns |that| was clepyd Ca

rolus |s|'c|undu|s |that| ys to |s|ey

Charlys |the| |s|ecunde. And |this|


Charlys was elyte kyng

of ffrauns by the grace of

god & by lynage also. And

|s|u|mm|e men |s|ey |that| he was

elite by fortune ||the| whiche

is fals as by cronycle he

was of |the| kynges blode

Royal. And |this| |s|ame kyng

Charlys was a ma|s|on

[Fol. 25.]

bi for |that| he was kyng. And


af|ter| |that| he was kyng he louyd

ma|s|ons & cher|s|chid them

and yaf hem chargys and

ma|ner|ys at his deui|s|e |the| which|e|

|s||um| ben yet u|s|ed in fraunce

and he ordeynyd that |th|ey

|s|cholde haue a |s|emly onys

in |the| yere and come and

|s|peke to gedyr and for to be

reuled by ma|s|ters & felows


of thynges a my|ss|e.

ANd |s||oo|ne af|ter| |that| come

|s|eynt ad habell in to Englond

[Fol. 25 b.]

and he c|on||uer|tyd |s|eynt Albon

to cristendome. And |s|eynt

Albon lovyd well ma|s|ons

and he yaf hem fyr|s|t he|re|

charges & maners fyr|s|t

in Englond. And he or

deyned c|on|uenyent to pay


for |the| trauayle. And af|ter|

|theat| was a worthy kyn|ge|

in Englond |that| was callyd

Athelstone and his yong

est |s|one lovyd well the

|s|ciens of Gemetry. and

he wy|s|t well|that| hand craft

[Fol. 26.]

had the practyke of |the |s|ci

ens of Gemetry to well

as masons wherefore he


drewe hym |to| c|on|sell and ler

nyd practyke of |that| |s|ciens

to his |s|peculatyf. For of |s|pec

culatyfe he was a ma|s||ter|

and he lovyd well ma

|s|onry and ma|s|ons. And

he bicome a mason hym

|s|elfe. And he yaf hem charg|es|

and names as hit is now

vsyd id Englond. and in


othere countries. And he

[Fol. 26 b.]

ordyned |that| |th|ey |s|chulde haue

re|s|onabull pay. And pur

cha|s|ed a fre patent of |the| k|y|ng

that they |s|choulde make a

|s|embly whan thei |s|awe re|-|

|s|onably tyme a c|u| to gedir to

he|re| counsel|le| of |the| whiche

Charges manors & |s|emble

as is write and taught |in| |th|e


boke of our charges wher

for I leue hit at this tyme.

GOod men for this

cau|s|e and |this| man|er|

ma|s|onry toke fir|s|te begyn|-|

[Fol 27.]

nyng. hit befyll |s||um|tyme

|that| grete lordis had not |s|o

grete po|s||s| e|s||s|ions |that| they

myghte not a vaunce here

fre bigeton childeryn for


|th|ey had so many. Therefore

they toke coun|s|ell howe |th|ey

my|g|t here childeryn ava|n|ce

and ordeyn hem one|s|tly to

lyue. And |s|ende af|ter| wy|s|e

mai|s|ters of |the| worthy |s|ci

ens of Gemetry |that| |they| thorou

here wy|s|dome |s|chold ordey/ne

hem |s||um| hone|s|t lyuyng

[Fol. 27 b.]

Then on of them |that| had |the|


name whiche was callyd

Englet |that| was most |s|otell

& wi|s|e founder ordeyned

and art and callyd hit ma

|s|onry. and so |with| his art ho

nestly he tho|g|t |the| childeren

of get lordis bi |the| pray

er of |the| fathers and |the| fre

will of here children. |the|

wiche when thei tau|g|t |with|


hie Cure bi a |s|erteyn ty|me|

|th|ey were not all ilyke ab/ull

for to take of |the| for|s|eyde art

[Fol. 28.]

Wherefore |the| for|s|ayde mai|s||ter|

Englet ordeynet thei were

pa|s||s|ing of conyng |s|chold

be pa|s||s|ing honoured. And

ded to call |the| c|on|nyn|ger| mai|s|ter|

for to enforme |the| la|s||s|e of c|on|

nyng ma|s|ters of |the| wiche


were callyd ma|s|ters of no

bilite of witte and c|on|nyng

of |that| art. Ne|ver||th|ele|s||s|e |th|ei c|om|

maundid |that| thei |that| were la|s||s|e

of witte |s|chold not be callyd

|s|eruan|ter| ner |s|ogett but felau

ffor nobilite of here gentyll

[Fol. 28 b.]

nlode. In this ma|n|e|r| was |the|

for|s|ayde art begunne |i|n |the|

lond of Egypte by |the| for|s|ayde


mai|s||ter| Englat & so hit went

fro lond to londe and fro k|yn|g

dome to kyngdome af|ter| |that| ma|-|

ny yeris in |the| tyme of kyng

adhel|s|tone wiche was |s|um

tyme kynge of Englonde bi

his co|un|n|s|el|ler| and other gre|ter|

lordys of |the| lond bi c|om|yn

a|s||s|ent for grete defavt y

fennde amon|ger| ma|s|ons |th|ei


ordeyned a certayne reule

[Fol 29.]

a mongys hom on tyme of

|the| yere or in ii|i| yere as nede

were to |the| kyn|g| and gret

lordys of |the| londe and all |the|

comente fro |pr|oynce to |pr|o|yn|ce

and fro co|u|ntre to co|u|ntre

c|on|gregacions |s|cholde be made

by mai|s|ters of all mai|s||ter|s

ma|s|ons and felaus in the


for|s|ayd art. And |s|o at |s|uche

c|on|gregac|o|ns they |that| be mad

ma|s|ters |s|chold be examined

of |the| articuls af|ter| writen. &

be ran|s|akyd whether thei be

[Fol. 29 b.]

abull and kunnyn|g| to |the| |pr|

fyte of |the| lordys hem to serue

and to |the| honour of |the| for|s|aid

art and more o|uer| they |s|chulde

receyue here charge |that| they


|s|chuld well and trewly di|s|

pende |the| goodys of here lordis

and as well |the| lowi|s|t as |the|

hie|s|t for they ben her lordys

for |the| tyme of whom |h|ei take

here pay for here cervyce

and for here trauayle. The

fir|s|te article ys this |that| e|uer|y

mai|s||ter| of |th|is art |s|chulde be

wy|s||s|e and trewe to |the| lord |that| he


|s|eruyth di|s|pendyng his godis

trule as he wolde his awne

were di|s|pendyd. and not yefe

more pay to no ma|s|on than

he wot he may di|s|erue af|ter| |the|

derthe of korne & vytayl in |the|

c|o|ntry no fauour |with| stond|y|g

for e|uer|y ma|n| to be rewardyd

af|ter| his trauayle. The se|c|nd

article is this |that| e|uer|y ma|s||ter|


of |this| art |s|cholde be warned

by fore to cum to his cogrega|t|

|that| thei com dewly but yf thei

[Fol. 30 b.]

may a|s||s|cu|s|yd by |s|ume ma|ner|

cause. But ne|uer|le|s||s|e if |th|ey

be founde rebell at |s|uche c|on|

gregacions or fauty in eny

ma|ner| harme of here lordys

and reprene of this art thei

|s|chulde not be excu|s|yd in no


ma|ner|e out take |per|ell of dethe

and thow they be in |per|yll of

dethe they |s|call warne |the|

mai|s||ter| |that| is pryncipall of |the|

gederyng of his de|s||s|e|s|e. |the|

article is this |that| no ma|s||ter|

take noprentes for la|s||s|e terme

[Fol. 31.]

than vi|i| yer at |the| le|s|t. by

caus|e| whi |s|uche as ben |with| |i|

la|s||s|e terme may not |pro|fitely


come to his art. nor abull

to serue truly his lorde to

take as a mason |s|chulde

take. The iii|i| article is |this|

|that| no ma|s||ter| for no |pro|fyte take

no prentis for to be lernyd

that is bore of bonde blode

fore bi cau|s|e of his lorde to

whom he is bonde woll tak|e|

hym as he well may fro


his art & lede hym |with| h|ym| out

of his logge or out of his

place |that| he worchyth in for

his felaus |per|auen|ter| wold help

hym and debte for h|ym|. and

thereoff man|s|laughter my|g|t

ry|s|e hit is forbede. And also

for a nother cau|s|e of his art

hit toke begynnyng of grete

lordis children frely beget|yn|


as hit is |i|seyd bi for. The

v. article is thys |that| no ma|s|ter|

yef more to his prentis in

tyme of his prenti|s|hode for

no |pro|phite to be take than he

[Fol 32.]

note well he may di|s||s|erue

of |the| lorde |that| he |s|eruith |nor| not

|s|o moche |that| |the| lorde of |the| place

|that| he is taught |i|nne may

haue |s|um |pro|fyte bi his te|-|


chyng. The v|i|. article is

this |that| no ma|s||ter| for no coue

ty|s|e ne|r| |pro|fite take no p|re|n

tis to teche |that| is un|per|fyte |that|

is to |s|ey havyng eny ma|ym|

for |the| whiche he may not

trewely worche as hym

ought for to do. The vi|i|.

article is this |that| np mai|s||ter| be

[Fol. 32 b.]

y founde wittyngly or help


or |pro|cure to be maynte|ner| &

|s|u|s|tey|ner| any comyn ny|g|twal

ker to robbe bi the whiche

ma|ner| of ny|g|twalkin|g|

thei may not fulfyll |ther| day|s|

werke and traueyell thorow

|the|c|on|dicion he|r| felaus my|g|t

be made wrowthe. The vii|i|

article is this |that| yf hit befall

|that| any ma|s|on |that| be |per|fyte and


c|on|nyng come for to |s|eche

werke and fynde any vn|per|fit

and vnkunnyng worchyng

[Fol. 33.]

|the| ma|s||ter| of |the| place |s|chall re

ceyue |the| |per|fite and do a wey |the|

vn|per|fite to |the| |pro|fite of his lord

The ix. article is this |th|at

no mai|s||ter| |s|chall supplant

a nother for hit is |s|eyd in |the|

art of ma|s|onry |that| no man


|s|cholde make ende |s|o well

of werke bigonne bi a no

ther to |the| |pro|fite of his lorde

as he bigan hit for to end

hit bi his maters or to wh|om|e

he |s|cheweth his maters.

This councell ys made bi dy

[Fol. 33 b.]

uers lordis & mai|s|ters of

dyvers |pro|vynces and di|uer|s

c|on|gregacions of ma|s|onry


and hit is to wyte |that| who |that|

covetyth for to come to the

|s|tate of |that| for|s|eyd art hit be

hoveth hem fyrst |pri|ncypally

to god and holy chyrche &

all halowis and his mas|ter|

and his felowis as his a|wn|e

brotheryn. The |s|econde poynt

he mo|s|t fulfylle his dayes

werke truly |that| he takyth for


his pay. The. ii|i|. |point| he can

[Fol. 34.]

hele the councell of his felo|ws|

in logge and in chambere

and in e|uer|y place |ther| as ma|s||on|s

beth. The iii|i|. poynt |that| he be

no di|s||s|eyver of |the| for|s|eyd art

ne do no |pre|iudice ne |s|u|s|teyne

none articles ayen|s|t |the| art

ne a yen|s|t none of |the| art

but he |s|chall |s|u|s|teyne hit


in all honovre in as moche

as he may. The. v. poynt

whan he schall take his

pay |that| he take hit mekely

as the tyme ys ordeynyd bi

[Fol. 34 b.]

the mai|s||ter| to be done and |that|

he fulfylle the accepcions

of trauayle and of his re|s|t

y ordeyned and |s|ette by |the|

mai|s||ter|. The. v|i|. poynt yf


eny di|s|corde |s|chall be bitwe

ne hym & his felows he

|s|chall a bey hym mekely &

be stylle at |the| byddyng of

his ma|s||ter| or of |the| wardeyne

of his ma|s||ter| in his ma|s||ter|s

absens to |the| holy day fo|-|

lowyng and |that| he accorde

then at |the| di|s|pocion of his

felaus and not upon |the| wer


keday for lettyng of here

werke and |pro|fyte of his lord

The. vi|i|. poynt |that| he covet

not |the| wyfe ne |the| doughter

of his ma|s|ters no|ther| of his

felaws but yf hit be in ma|-\

tuge nor holde c|on|cubines

for dy|s|cord |that| my|g|t fall a

monges them. The. vii|i|

poynt yf hit befalle hym


ffor to be wardeyne vndyr

his ma|s||ter| |that| he be trewe mene

bitwene his ma|s||ter| & his

[Fol. 35 b.]

felaws and |that| he be be|s|y in

the ab|s|ence of his ma|s||ter| to

|the| honor of his ma|s||ter| and |pro||-|

fit to |the| lorde |that he |s|erueth

The. iX. poynt yf he be wy|s|er

and |s|otellere |th|an his felawe

worchyng |with| hym in his


logge or in eny other place

and he |per||s|eyue hit |that| he |s|chold

lefe the stone |that| he worchyt a|-|

pon for defawte of c|on|nyng

and can teche hym and a

mende |the| |s|tone he |s|chall en/forme

hym and helpe h|im| |that| the more

loue may encre|s|e among h|em|

and |that| |the| werke of |the| lorde be not


lo|s|t. Whan the ma|s||ter| and |the| fe

lawes be for warned ben y

come to |s|uche c|on|gregac|on|ns

if nede be |the| Schereffe of |the|

countre or the mayer of |the|

Cyte or alderman of |the| town|e|

in wyche the c|on|gregac|on|s ys

hold|en| |s|chall be felaw and so

ciat to |the| ma|s||ter| of the c|on|gre

gacion in helpe of h|ym| ayenst re


belles and vpberyng |the| ry|g|t

of the reme. At |the| fyrst beg|yn|

[Fol. 36 b.]

nyng new men |that| ne|uer| we|re|

chargyd bi fore beth charged

in |th|is manere that |s|chold

neuer be theuys nor |th|euys

meynteners and |that| |s|chuld

tryuly fulfyll he|re| dayes

werke and truayle for he|re|

pay that |th|ey |s|chull take of


here lord and trewe a coun|t|

yeue to here felaus in th|yn|

gys |that| be to be a countyd of

hem and to here and hem

loue as hem |s|elfe and they

|s|chall be trew to the kynge

of englond and to the reme

and that they kepe |with| all |ther|

my|g|t and all the articles

a for |s|ayd. Af|ter| that hit |s|chall


be enqueryd if ony ma|s||ter| or

felaw that is y warnyd haue

y broke ony article be for|s|ayd

the whiche if they haue done

hit schall be de termyned |ther|.

Therefore hit is to wyte if

eny ma|s||ter| or felawe that is

warnyd bifore to come to

|s|uche c|on|gregac|on|ns and be

rebell and woll not come or

[Fol. 37 b.]

els haue tre|s|pa|s||s|ed a yen|s|t

any article befor|s|ayd if hit

may be |pro|uyd he |s|chall for|-|

|s|were his ma|s|onri and |s|chal

no more v|s|e his craft. The

whiche if he |pre||s|ume for to do

|the| Sc|her|efe of |the| countre |in| |the| which

he may be founde worchyn|ge|

he |s|chall |pri||s|on h|im| & take all

his godys |in| to |the| kynges hond


tyll his |gra|ce be |gra|ntyd h|im| & y |s|che

wed for |this| cau|s|e |pri|ncipally w|her|

|th|es c|on|gregat|on|ns ben y ordeyned

that as well the lowist as

[Fol 38.]

as the hie|s|t |s|chuld be well

and trewely y |s|eruyd in

his art bifore|s|ayd thorow

owt all the kyngdom of

Englond. Amen |s|o mote

hit be


Thanked be God,
our glorius
father and found-
er and former of Heaven
and of earth and of all
things that in him is,
that he would vouchsafe, of
his glorious God-head, for to
make so many things of di
vers virtue for mankind;
for He made all things for
to be obedient and subject to man,
for all things that are comes
tible of wholsome nature he
ordained it for mans suste-
nance. And also he hath given
to man wits and cunning
of divers things, and crafts,
by the which we may
travel in this world to
get with our living to make
divers things to God's plea-
sure, and also for our ease and
profit. The which things
if I should rehearse them it
were too long to tell, and to
write. Wherefore I will leave (them),
but I shall shew you some,
that is to say how, and in what
wise, the science of Geometry
first began, and who were
the founders thereof, and of
other crafts more, as it is noted
in the Bible and in other
How and in what man-
ner that this worthy
science of geometry began, I
will tell you, as I said be-
fore. Ye shall understand
that there be 7 liberal sciences,
by the which 7 all sciences
and crafts, in the world, were
first found, and in espwciall
for he is causer of all, that is to
say the science of geometry of all
other that be, the which 7 sci-
ences are called thus. As for the
first, that is called [the] fundament
of science, his name is grammar,
he teacheth a man rightfully to
speak and to write truly. The
second is rhetoric, and he teach-
eth a man to speak formab-
ly and fair. The third is
dialecticus, and that science teacheth
a man to discern the truth
from the false, and commonly it is
called art or sophistry. The fourth
is called arithmetic, the which
teacheth a man the craft of
numbers, for to reckon and
to make account of all things.
The fifth [is] geometry, the which
teacheth a man all the metcon,
and measures, and ponderacion,
of weights of all mans craft.
The 6th is music, that teacheth
a man the craft of song, in
notes of voice and organ,
and trumpet, and harp, and of all
others pertaining to them. The
7th is astronomy, that teacheth
man the course of the sun,
and of the moon, and of other
stars and planets of heaven.
Our intent is princi-
pally to treat of [the] first
foundation of the worthy science
of geometry, and we were
the foundes thereof, as I said
before. There are 7 liberal
sciences, that is to say, 7 sciences, or
crafts, that are free in them-
selves, the which 7 live
only by geometry. And geo-
metry is as much to say
as the measure of the earth,
"Et sic dicitur a geo ge quin R ter
a latin et metron quod est
mensura. Una Geometria in
mensura terra vel terrarum,"
that is to say in English, that
gemetria is, I said, of geo that is
in gru, earth, and metron, that is
to say measure, and thus is this
name of Gemetria comounded
and is said [to be] the measure of the earth.
Marvel ye not that I
said, that all sciences live
all only, by the science of geome-
try, for there is none [of them] artifici-
al. No handicraft that is wrought
by mans hand but it is
wrought by geometry, and a
notable cause, for if a man
work with his hands he wor-
keth with some manner [of] tool, and
there is none instrument, of ma-
terial things, in this world
but it come[s] of the kind of
earth, and to earth it will
turn again, and there is none
instrument, that is to say a tool
to work with, but it hath
some proportion, more or less.
And proportion is measure,
the tool, or the instrument,
is earth. And geometry is
said [to be] the measure of [the] earth, Where-
fore, I may say that men live
all by geometry, for all
men here in this world live
by the labour of their hands.
Many more probations I
will tell you, why that
geometry is the science that all rea-
sonable men live by, but I
leave it, at this time, for the long
process of writing. And now
I will proceed further on my matter.
Ye shall understand that
among all the crafts of the
world, of man's craft,
masonry hath the most notabil-
ity and most part of this
science, geometry, as it is
noted and said in history,
as in the Bible, and in the
master of history. And in [the] Policronicon
a chronicle printed, and in the
histories that is named Bede.
"De Imagine Mundi;" et Isodorus
"Ethomolegiarum." Methodius,
Episcopus et Martiris, and others,
many more, said that masonry is
principal of geometry, as
me thinketh it may well
be said, for it was the first
that was founded, as it is
noted in the Bible, in the first
book of Genesis in the 4th
chapter; and also all the doc-
tors aforesaid accordeth thereto,
and some of them saith it
more openly, and plainly,
right as it saith in the Bi
ble, Genesis.
Adam's line lineal
son, descending down
the 7th age of Adam before
Noah's flood, there was a man that
was named Lamech the
which had 2 wives, the
one hight Adah, and another
Zillah; by the first wife, that
hight Adah, he begat 2 sons
that one hight Jabal, and the other
hight Jubal. The elder son,
Jabal, he was the first man
that ever found geometry and
masonry, and he made houses,
and [is] named in the Bible
"Pater habitancium in tento-
ris atque pastorum," that is to
say, father of men dwelling
in tents, that is, dwelling
houses. And he was Cain's
master mason, and governor
of all his works, when
he made the city of Enock,
that was the first city;
That was the first city that
ever was made, and that made
Cain, Adam's son, and
gave to his own son Enock,
and gave the city the name
of his son, and called it
Enock. And now it is
called Ephraim, and there was
[the] science of Geometry, and ma-
sonry, first occupied, and
contrenid, for a science and
for a craft, and so we may
say that it was [the] cause and foun-
dation of all crafts, and
sciences, and also this man,
Jaball, was called "pater
The master of stories
saith, and Bede, De Im-
agine Mundi,
{the] Policronicon, and
other more say that he was
the first that made depercession
of land, that every man might
know his own ground,
and labour thereon, as for
his own. And also he de-
parted flocks of sheep, that
every man might know his
own sheep, and so we may
say that he was the first
founder of that science. And his
brother Jubal, or Tubal,
was [the] founder of music and
song, as Pythagoras saith
in [the] Policronicon and the
same saith Isodore in his
Ethemologies, in the 6th book,
there he saith that he was
the first founder of music,
and song, and of organ and
trumpet, and he found that
science by the sound of pon-/deration
of his brother's hammers, that
was Tubal Cain.
Soothly as the Bible
saith in the chapter,
that is to say, the 4th of Genesis,
that he saith Lamech begot upon
his other wife, that hight Zillah,
a son and a daughter, the names of
them were called Tubal Cain,
that was the son, and his daughter [was]
called Naamah, and as the Poli-
saith, that some men
say that she was Noah's wife:
whether it be so, or no, we affirm/ it not.
Ye shall understand
that this son Tubal Cain
was [the] founder of smiths'
craft, and of other crafts of
metal, that is to say, of iron,
of brass, of gold, and of silver,
as some doctors say, and his
sister Naamah was finder of
weavers-craft, for before that time
was no cloth woven, but
they did spin yarn and
knit it, and made them such
clothing as they could,
but as the woman Naamah
found the craft of weaving,
and therefore it was called wo-
men's craft, and these 3
brethren, aforesaid, had know-
ledge that God would take ven-
geance for sin, either by fire,
or water, and they had greater
care how they might do to
save the sciences that they [had] found,
and they took their counsel
together and, by all their witts,
they said that [there] were 2 manner of
stone[s] of such virtue that the one
would never burn, and that stone
is called marble, and that the other stone
that will not sink in water and
that stone is named latres, and
so they devised to write all
the sciences that they had found in
these 2 stones, [so that] if that God would
take vengeance, by fire, that the
marble should not burn.
And if God sent vengeance,
by water, that the other should not
drown, and so they prayed their
elder brother Jabal that [he] would
make 2 pillars of these 2
stones, that is to say of marble
and of latres, and that he would
write in the 2 pillars all
the science[s], and crafts, that all they
had found, and so he did
and, therefore, we may say that
he was most cunning in
science, for he first began
and performed the before
Noah's flood.
Kindly knowing of
that vengeance, that God
would send, whether it
should be by fire, or by water,
the brethren had it not
by a manner of a prophecy, they
wist that God would send one there-
of, and therefore they wrote
their science[s] in the 2 pillars
of stone, and some men say
that they wrote in the stones
all the 7 science[s], but as
they [had] in their mind[s] that a ven-
geance should come. And
so it was that God sent ven-
geance so that there came such
a flood that all the world was
drowned, and all men were
dead therein, save 8 persons,
And that was Noah, and his
wife, and his three sons, and
their wives, of which 3
sons all the world came of,
and their names were na-
med in this manner, Shem, Ham,
and Japhet. And this flood was
called Noah's flood, for he, and
his children, were saved there-
in. And after this flood many
years, as the chronicle telleth,
these 2 pillars were found,
and as the Pilicronicon saith, that
a great clerk that [was] called Pythag/oras
found that one, and Hermes, the
philosopher, found that other, and
they taught forth the sciences that
they found therein written.
Every chronicle, and his-
tory, and many other
clerks, and the Bible in princi-
pal, witnesses of the making
of the tower of Babel, and it
is written in the Bible, Genesis
Chapter x., how that Ham, Noah's
son begot Nimrod, and he
waxed a mighty man upon the
earth, and he waxed a strong
man, like a giant, and he was
a great king. And the begin-
ning of his kingdom was [that of the]
true kingdom of Babylon, and
Arach, and Archad, and Calan, and
the land of Sennare. And this
same Nimrod began the tower
of Babylon . . . and
he taught to his workmen the
craft of measures, and he had
with him many masons, more than
40 thousand. And he loved and
cherished them well. And it
is written in [the] Policronicon, and
in the master of stories, and in
other stories more, and this in part
witnesseth [the] Bible, in the same
x. chapter [of Genesis,] where he saith that A-
sur, that was nigh [of] kin to
Nimrod, [and] went out of the land of
Senare and he built the city [of]
Nineveh, and Plateas, and other
more, this he saith "de tra illa
et de Sennare egressus est Asur,
et edificavit Nineven et Plateas
civitatum et Cale et Jesu quoque,
inter Nineven et hoec est Civitas
Reason would that we should
tell openly how, and in
what manner, that the charges
of mason-craft was first found-
ed and who gave first the name
of it of masonry. And ye
shall know well that it [is] told
and written in [the] Policronicon and
in Methodius episcopus and Martyrus
that Asure, that was a worthy lord
of Sennare, sent to Nimrod
the king, to send him masons
and workmen of craft that might
help him to make his city
that he was in will to make.
And Nimrod sent him 30 [380]
hunred of masons. And when they
should go and [he should] send them forth he
called them before him and said
to them--"Ye must go to my cou-
sin Asur, to help him to build
a city; but look [to it] that ye be well
governed, and I shall give
you a charge profitable for
you and me.
When ye come to that lord
look that ye be true to
him like as ye would be to
me, and truly do your labour
and craft, and take reason-
able your meed therefore as ye
may deserve, and also that ye
love together as ye were
brethren, and hold together
truly; and he that hath most cunning
teach it to his fellow; and
look ye govern you against
your lord and among
yourselves, that I may have
worship and thanks for
my sending, and teaching,
you the craft." and they re-/ceived
the charge of him that was their
master and their lord, and
went forth to Asur, and
built the city of Ninevah, in
the country of Plateas, and other
cities more that men call Cale
and Jesen, that is a great city
between Cale and Nineveh.
And in this manner the craft
of masonry was first prefer-
red and charged it for a science.
Elders that were before us,
of masons, had these
charges written to them as
we have now in our char-
ges of the story of Euclid,
as we have seen them written
in Latin and in French both;
but how that Euclid came to [the knowledge of]
geometry reason would we
should tell you as it is
noted in the Bible and in other
stories. In the twelfth chapter of Genesis
he telleth how that Abraham came to
the Land of Canaan, and our
Lord appeared to him and said, I
shall give this land to thy
seed; but there fell a great hunger
in that land, and Abraham took
Sarah, his wife, with him and
went into Egypt in pilgrim-
age, [and] while the hunger [en]dur-
ed he would bide there. And A-
braham, as the chronicle saith,
he was a wise man and a
great clerk, and couthe all
the 7 science[s] and taught
the Egyptians the science of
geometry. And thid worthy
clerk, Euclid, was his
clerk and learned of him.
And he gave the first name
of geometry, all be that it
was occupied before it had
no name of geometry. But
it is said of Isodour, Ethe-
in the 5th booke Ethe-
capitolo primo, saith
that Euclid was one of the first
founders of geometry, and
he gave it [that] name, for in
his time that was a wa- [there]
ter in that land of Egypt that
is called [the] Nile, and it flowed
so far into the land that men
might not dwell therein.
Then this worthy
clerk, Euclid, taught
them to make great walls
and ditches to holde out the
water; and he, by geometry,
measured the land, and depar-
ted it in divers parts, and
made every man close his
own part with walls and
ditches, and then it became
a plenteous country of all
manner of fruit and of young
people, of men and women,
that there was so much people
of young fruit that they could
not well live. And the lords
of the country drew them [selves] to-
gether and made a council
how they might help their
children that had no livelihood,
competent and able, for to find
themselves and their children
for thy had so many. And
among them all in council
was this worthy clerk Euclid,
and when he saw that
all they could not bring
about this matter he said
to them-"Will ye take your sons
in governance, and I shall teach
them such science that they
shall live thereby gentle-
manly, under condition that
ye will be sworn to me to
perform the governance that
I shall set you to and
them both." And the king
of the land and all the lords,
by one assent, granted thereto.
Reason would that every man
would grant to that
thing that were profitable to him-
self, and they took their sons
to Euclid to govern
them at his own will, and
he taught to them the craft,
masonry, and gave it the
name of geometry, because
of the parting of the ground that
he had taught to the people,
in the time of the making
of the walls and ditches a-
foresaid, to close out the
water, and Isodore saith, in his
Ethemologies, that Euclid
calleth the craft geometry;
and there was this worthy clerk
gave it name, and taught
it the lords' sons of the
land that he had in his teaching.
And he gave them a charge that
they should call here each
other fellow, and no other-
wise, because that they were
all of one craft, and of one
gentle birth born, and lords'
sons. And also he that were
most of cunning should be
governor of the work, and
should be called master, and
other charges more that are
written in the book of char-
ges. And so they wrought
with lords of the land, and made
cities and towns, castles
and temples, and lords' palaces.
What time that the chil-
drewn of Israel dwelt
in Egypt they learned the
craft of masonry. And
afterward, [when] they were
driven out of Egypt, they
came into the land of behest,
and is now called Jerusalem,
and it was occupied and char-
ges there hel. And the making
of Solomon's temple that
king David began. (King
David loved well masons,
and he gave them right nigh
as they be now.) And at the
making of the temple in
Solomon's time as it
is said in te Bible, in the
3rd book of Regum in tercio
Regum capitolo quinto, that
Solomon had 4 score
thousand masons at
his work. And the king's
son, of Tyre, was his master
mason. And [in] other chroni-
cles it is said, and in old
books of masonry, that
Solomon confirmed the char-
ges that David, his father, had
given to masons. And Solo-
mon himself taught them
there manners [with] but little [their ?]
difference from the manners
that now are used. And from
thence this worthy science
was brought into France
and into many other regions
Sometime there was
a worthy king in
France that was called Ca-
rolus secundus, that is to say,
Charles the Second, and this
Charles was elected king
of France, by the grace of
God and by lineage also. And
some men say that he was
elected by fortune, the which
is false, as by [the] chronicle he
was of the king's blood
royal. And this same King,
Charles, was a mason
before that he was king, and
after that he was king he loved
masons and cherished them,
and gave them charges and
manners at his device, [of] the which
some are yet used in France;
and he ordained that they
should have [an] assembly once
in the year, and come and
speak together, and for to be
ruled by masters and fellows
of all things amiss.
And soon after that came
Saint Adhabell into England,
and converted Saint Alban
to Christianity. And Saint
Alban loved well masons,
and he gave them first their
charges and manners first
in England. And he or-
dained convenient [times] to pay
for the travail. And after
that was a worthy king
in England that was called
Athelstan, and his young-
est son loved well the
science of geometry, and
he wist well that hand-craft
had the practice of the sci
ence of geometry so well
as masons, wherefore he
drew him to council and learn-
ed [the] practice of that science
to his speculative, for of specu-
lative he was a master,
and he loved well mason-
ry and masons. And
he became a mason him-
self, and he gave them charges
and names as it is now
used in England, and in
other countries. And he
ordained that they shouuld have
reasonable pay and purchas-
ed a free patent of the king
that they should make [an] assem-
bly when they saw a reason-
able time and come together to
their councillors of which
charges, manners, and assembly,
as it is written and taught in the
book of our charges, wherefore
I leave it at this time.
Good men for this
cause and this manner
masonry took [its] first begin-
ning. It befel sometime[s]
that great lords had not so
great possessions that they
might not advance their
free begotten children, for
thet had so many, therefore
they took counsel how they
might their children advance
and ordain them honestly to
live. And [they] sent after wise
masters of the worthy sci-
ence of geometry that they, through
their wisdom, should ordain
them some honest living.
Then one of them, that had the
name which was called
Englet, that was most subtle
and wise founder, ordained
an art and called it Ma-
sonry, and so with his art, hon-
estly, he taught the children
of great lords, by the pray-
er of the fathers and the free-
will of their children, the
which when they [were] taught with
high care, by a certain time,
they were not all alike able
for to take of the [a]foresaid art
wherefore the [a]foresaid master,
Englet, ordained [that] they [who] were
passing of cunning should
be passing honured, and
ded to call the cunninger master
for to inform the less of cun-
ning masters, of the which
were called masters, of no-
bility of wit and cunning
of that art. Nevertheless they com-
manded that they that were less
of wit should not be called
servant, nor subject, but fellow,
for nobility of their gentle
blood. In this manner was the
[a]foresaid art begun in the
land of Egypt, by the [a]foresaid
master Englet, and so it went
from land to land, and from king-
dom to kingdom. After that, ma-
ny years, in the time of King-
Athelstan, which was some
time king of England, by
his councillors, and other greater
lords of the land, by common
assent, for great default
found among masons, they
ordained a certain rule
amongst them: one time of
the year, or in 3 years as need
were to the king and great
lords of the land, and all the
comonalty, from province to province,
and from country to country,
congregations should be made,
by masters, of all masters,
masons, and fellows in the
[a]foresaid art, and so, at such
congregations, they that be made
masters should be examined,
of the articles after written, and
be ransacked whether they be
able and cunning to the pro-
fit of the lords [having] them to serve
and to the honour of the [a]foresaid
art. And, moreover, they should
receive their charge that they
should well and truly dis-
pend the goods of their lords,
as well the lowest as the
highest, for they be their lords,
for the time, of whom they take
their pay for their service
and for their travail. The
first Article is this,--That every
master of this art should be
wise and true to the lord that he
serveth, dispending his goods
truly as he would his own
were dispensed, and not give
more pay to no mason than
he wot he may deserve, after the
dearth of corn and victual in the
country, no favour withstanding,
for every man to be rewarded
after his travail. The second
Article is this,--That every master
of this art should be warned,
before, to come to his congregation,
that they come duly, but if they
may [be] excused by some manner [of]
cause. But, nevertheless, if they
be found rebel[lious] at such con-
gregations, or faulty in any
manner [of] harm of their lords,
and reproof of this art, they
should not be excused in no
manner [with]out taking peril of death,
and though they be in peril
of death, they shall warn the
master that is principal of the
gathering of his decease. The
[third] Article is this,--That no master
take no [ap]prentice for [a] less term
than 7 year[s] at the least, be-
cause such as be within [a]
less term may not, profitably,
come to his art nor able
to serve, truly, his lord [and] to
take as a mason should
take. The 4th Article is this,--
That no master, for no profit, take
no [ap]prentice, for to be learned,
that is born of bond blood,
for, because of his lord, to
whom he is bond, will take
him as he well may, from
his art and lead him, with him, out
of his lodge, or out of his
place, that he worketh in, for
his fellows, peradventure, would help
him and debate for him, and
thereof manslaughter might
[a]rise, it is forbid[den.] And also
for another cause of his art,
it took beginning of great
lords' children, freely begotten,
as it is said before. The
5th Article is this,--That no master
give more to his [ap]prentice in
time of his [ap]prenticehood, for
no profit to be take[n], than he
note[s] well he may deserve
of the lord that he serveth, nor not
so much that the lord, of the place
that he is taught in, may
have some profit of his teach-
ing. The 6th Article is
this,--That no master for no coveteous-
ness, nor profit, take no [ap]pren-
tice to teach that is imperfect, that
is to say, having any maim
for the which he may not
truly work as he
ought for to do. The 7th
Article is this,--That no master be
found wittingly, or help
or procure. to be [a] maintainer and
sustainer [of] any common night wal-
ker to rob, by the which
manner of night-walking
they may not fulfil their day's
work and travail, [and] through
the condition their fellows might
be made wroth. The 8th
Article is this,--That if it befal
that any mason that be perfect, and
cunning, come for to seek
work and find an imperfect
and uncunning working,
the master of the place shall re-
ceive the perfect, and do away the
imperfect, to the profit of his lord.
The 9th Article is this,--That
no master shall supplant
another for it is said, in the
art of masonry, that no man
should make end so well
of work begun by ano-
ther, to the profit of his lord,
as he [that] began it, for to end
it by his matters, or to whom
he sheweth his matters.
This council is made by di-
vers lords and masters of
divers provinces and divers
congregations of masonry
and it is, to wit, that who that
coveteth for to come to the
state of the [a]foresaid art it be-
hoveth them first, principally,
to God and holy church, and
all-halows, and his master
and his fellows as his own
brethren. The second Point,--
He must fulfil his day's
work truly that he taketh for
his pay. The 3rd [Point].--That he can
hele the counsel of his fellows
in lodge, and in chamber,
and in every place there as Masons
be. The 4th Point,--That he be
no deceiver of the [a]foresaid art,
nor do no prejudice, nor sustain
no articles, against the art,
nor against none of the art,
but he shall sustain it
in all honour, inasmuch
as he may. The 5th Point,--
When he shall take his
pay, that he take it meekly,
as the time is ordained by
the master to be done, and that
he fulfil the acceptations
of travail, and of rest,
ordained and set by the
master. The 6th Point,--If
any discord shall be be-
tween him and his fellows he
shall obey him meekly, and
be still at the bidding of
his master, or of the warden
of his master, in his master's
absence, to the holy-day follow-
ing, and that he accord
then at the disposition of his
fellows, anot upon the work-
day for letting of their
work and profit of his lord.
The 7th Point,--That he covet
not the wife, not the daughter,
of his masters, neither of his
fellows, but if it be in mar-
riage, nor hold concubines,
for discord that might fall a-
mongst them. The 8th
Point,--If it befal him
for to be warden under
his master, that he be true mean
between his master and his
fellows, and that he be busy in
the absence of his master to
the honour of his master and pro-
fit of the lord that he serveth.
The 9th Point,--If he be wiser,
and subtler than his fellow
working with him in his
lodge, or any other place,
and he perceive it that he should
leave the stone that he worketh up-
on, for default of cunning,
and can teach him and a-
mend the stone, he shall in-/form
him and help him, that the more
love may increase among them,
and that the work of the lord be not
lost. When the master and the fel-
lows be forewarned [and] are
come to such congregations,
if need be, the Sheriff of the
Country, or the Mayor of the
City, or Alderman of the Town,
in which the congregations is
holden, shall be fellow, and [as] soci-
ate, to the master of the congre-
gation, in help of him, against re-
bels and [for the] up-bearing the right
of the realm. At the first begin-
ning new men, that never were
charged before, be charged
in this manner,--That [they] should
never be thieves, nor thieves'
maintainers, and that [they] should
truly fulfil their day's
work, and travail, for their
pay that they shall take of
their lord, and [a] true account
give to their fellows, in things
that be to be accounted of
them, and to hear, and them
love as themselves. And they
shall be true to the King
of England, and to the realm,
and that they keep, with all their
might, and all the Articles
aforesaid. After that it shall
be enquired if any master, or
fellow, that is warned, have
broke[n] any Article beforesaid,
the which, if they have done,
it shall be determined there.
Therefore, it is to wit, if
any master, or fellow, that is
warned before to come to
such congregations and be
rebell[ious], and will not come, or
else have trespassed against
any Article beforesaid, if it
may be proved, he shall for-
swear his Masonry and shall
no more use his craft; the
which, if he presume for to do,
the Sheriff of the Country, in which
he may be found working,
he shall [im]prison him and take all
his goods into the king's hand
till his grace be granted him and shew-
ed. For this cause, principally, where
these congregations ordained
that as well the lowest, as
the highest, should be well
and truly served in
his art, beforesaid, through-
out all the kingdom of
England. Amen: So
Mote it be.

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